Artículos publicados

2012

First evaluation of the simultaneous SMOS and ELBARA-II observations in the Mediterranean region (2012)

First evaluation of the simultaneous SMOS and ELBARA-II observations in the Mediterranean region (2012)

Jean-Pierre Wigneron, Mike Schwank, Ernesto Lopez Baeza, Yann Kerr, Nathalie Novello, Cristina Millan, Christophe Moisy, Philippe Richaume, Arnaud Mialon, Ahmad Al Bitar, François Cabot, Heather Lawrence, Dominique Guyon, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Jennifer P. Grant, Patricia de Rosnay, Ali Mahmoodi, Steven Delwart, Susanne Mecklenburg. First evaluation of the simultaneous SMOS and ELBARA-II observations in the Mediterranean region. Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 124, September 2012, Pages 26–37

The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission was launched on November 2, 2009. Over the land surfaces, simultaneous retrievals of surface soil moisture (SM) and vegetation characteristics made from the multi-angular and dual polarization SMOS observations are now available from Level-2 (L2) products delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA). Therefore, first analyses evaluating the SMOS observations in terms of Brightness Temperatures (TB) and L2 products (SM and vegetation optical depth TAU) can be carried out over several calibration/validation (cal/val) sites selected by ESA over all continents. This study is based on SMOS observations and in situ measurements carried out in 2010 over one of the main SMOS cal/val sites in Europe: the VAS (Valencia Anchor Station) site in the region of Utiel–Requena, close to Valencia, Spain. The main vegetation types in the region are vineyards, orchards and natural Mediterranean vegetation. The SMOS observations were analyzed in conjunction with those carried out by the L-band ELBARA-II radiometer over a vineyard which is considered as representative of the main land use of the VAS site. Time series of TB and retrievals of SM and TAU based on both the SMOS (L2 products) and the ELBARA-II observations were compared and evaluated against in situ measurements. A good agreement was found between the time variations in TB and in the retrieved SM values computed over the site from the SMOS and ELBARA-II observations (the determination coefficient R2 was > 0.88 for the TB values and R2 > 0.64 for the retrieved SM values). However, it was found that the SMOS L2 SM products underestimated the SM values retrieved from ELBARA-II by ~ 0.2 m3/m3. It is likely this offset can be partially explained by differences between the observed scenes: while the ELBARA-II footprint includes a single vineyard, the heterogeneous SMOS footprint includes not only a large number of vineyards but also a natural Mediterranean vegetation with persistent leaves overlaying rocky soils. The time variations in TAU retrieved from the ELBARA-II observations were found to be closely related to those of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) vegetation index obtained from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) (R2 = 0.61) and revealed the vegetation cycle over the year. Conversely, the time variations in the SMOS Level-2 TAU product did not reveal any trends in relation to the vegetation development over the site.

L-Band Radiative Properties of Vine Vegetation at the SMOS Cal/Val Site MELBEX III (2012)

L-Band Radiative Properties of Vine Vegetation at the SMOS Cal/Val Site MELBEX III (2012)

Mike Schwank, Jean-Pierre Wigneron, Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, Ingo Völksch, Christian Mätzler, Yann Kerr. L-Band Radiative Properties of Vine Vegetation at the SMOS Cal/Val Site MELBEX. IIIIEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (TGRS) SMOS Special Issue, vol. 50, issue 5, 1587-1601 (2012).

Radiative properties at 1.4 GHz of vine vegetation are investigated by measuring brightness temperatures with the ETH L-band Radiometer II (ELBARA II) operated on a tower at the Mediterranean Ecosystem L-band Characterisation Experiment III (MELBEX III) field site in Spain. To this aim, experiments with and without a reflecting foil placed under the vines were performed for the vegetation winter and summer states, respectively, to provide prevailingly information on vegetation transmissivities. The resulting parameters, which can be considered as "ground truth" for the MELBEX III vineyard, were retrieved from brightness temperature at horizontal and vertical polarization measured at observation angles between 30° and 60°. These MELBEX III "ground-truth" values are representative for the Mediterranean Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) and therefore valuable for the corresponding calibration and validation activities over the VAS site. Likewise, quantifying the uncertainties of the measured brightness temperatures was also important, particularly as several equivalent ELBARA II instruments are currently operative in ongoing SMOS-related field campaigns.

2011

Trends in indices of daily precipitation extremes in Catalonia (NE Spain) (2011)

Trends in indices of daily precipitation extremes in Catalonia (NE Spain) (2011)

TURCO, M. y LLASAT, M.C. Trends in indices of daily precipitation extremes in Catalonia (NE Spain), 1951-2003. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11, 3213-3226 (2011).

The aim of this paper is to quantitatively charac- terize the climatology of daily precipitation indices in Catalo- nia (northeastern Iberian Peninsula) from 1951 to 2003. This work has been performed analyzing a subset of the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) pre- cipitation indices calculated from a new interpolated dataset of daily precipitation, namely SPAIN02, regular at 0.2◦ hor- izontal resolution (around 20 km) and from two high-quality stations: the Ebro and Fabra observatories. Using a jack-knife technique, we have found that the sampling error of the SPAIN02 regional averaged is rela- tively low. The trend analysis has been implemented us- ing a Circular Block Bootstrap procedure applicable to non- normal distributions and autocorrelated series. A running trend analysis has been applied to analyze the trend persis- tence. No general trends at a regional scale are observed, considering the annual or the seasonal regional averaged se- ries of all the indices for all the time windows considered. Only the consecutive dry days index (CDD) at annual scale shows a locally coherent spatial trend pattern; around 30 % of the Catalonia area has experienced an increase of around 2–3 days decade−1. The Ebro and Fabra observatories show a similar CDD trend, mainly due to the summer contribu- tion. Besides this, a significant decrease in total precipita- tion (around −10 mm decade−1) and in the index "highest precipitation amount in five-day period" (RX5DAY, around −5 mm decade−1), have been found in summer for the Ebro observatory.

Testing MOS precipitation downscaling for ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Spain (2011)

Testing MOS precipitation downscaling for ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Spain (2011)

TURCO, M. et AL. Testing MOS precipitation downscaling for ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Spain. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, D18109, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016166 (2011).

Model Output Statistics (MOS) has been recently proposed as an alternative to the standard perfect prognosis statistical downscaling approach for Regional Climate Model (RCM) outputs. In this case, the model output for the variable of interest (e.g. precipitation) is directly downscaled using observations. In this paper we test the performance of a MOS implementation of the popular analog methodology (referred to as MOS analog) applied to downscale daily precipitation outputs over Spain. To this aim, we consider the state‐of‐the‐art ERA40‐driven RCMs provided by the EU‐funded ENSEMBLES project and the Spain02 gridded observations data set, using the common period 1961–2000. The MOS analog method improves the representation of the mean regimes, the annual cycle, the frequency and the extremes of precipitation for all RCMs, regardless of the region and the model reliability (including relatively low‐performing models), while preserving the daily accuracy. The good performance of the method in this complex climatic region suggests its potential transferability to other regions. Furthermore, in order to test the robustness of the method in changing climate conditions, a cross‐validation in driest or wettest years was performed. The method improves the RCM results in both cases, especially in the former.

Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950-2009) (2011)

Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950-2009) (2011)

GAYA, M. et AL. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950-2009). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 11, 1875-1883 (2011).

This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Penin- sula). A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009) has been de- veloped on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, news- papers and damage surveys. This database has been sub- jected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and waterspout distribution. Results show the highest concentration of tornadoes from August to October, the highest density in the heavily populated coastal areas and a growing positive trend that is likely more closely linked to an increase in observation and perception rather than a real climatic trend.

2010

The effect of observation timescales on the characterisation of extreme Mediterranean precipitation (2010)

The effect of observation timescales on the characterisation of extreme Mediterranean precipitation (2010)

CAMARASA BELMONTE, A.M., SORIANO GARCÍA, J. y LÓPEZ-GARCÍA, M.J. The effect of observation timescales on the characterisation of extreme Mediterranean precipitation. Advances in Geoscience, 26, 61-64, 2010 doi:10.5194/adgeo-26-61-2010

Este trabajo analiza el comportamiento de los cinco indicadores de precipitaciones (intensidad máxima, precipitación acumulada, irregularidad, probabilidad de lluvias y persistencia de la lluvia) en escalas de tiempo de observación diferentes que van desde 5min a 24h. Cubre una amplia zona en la vertiente mediterránea de la Península Ibérica (Autoridad de la Confederación Hidrográfica del Júcar, 43 000 km2) de forma continua durante un período de 14 años (1994-2007). Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento de las lluvias extremas en el Mediterráneo depende en gran medida de la escala de tiempo de observación. Hay una serie de puntos de inflexión en la tendencias de los indicadores que se producen en escalas de tiempo diferentes (1 y 6 h en el caso de la intensidad de la lluvia y las irregularidades, 6 horas de lluvia acumulada y entre 15 y 30 minutos de persistencia de la lluvia) y puede ser relevante para la determinación de los umbrales utilizados en la gestión del agua.

Violent storms within the Sea: dense water formation episodes in the NW Mediterranean (2010)

Violent storms within the Sea: dense water formation episodes in the NW Mediterranean (2010)

SALAT, J., PUIG, P. y LATASA, M. (2010): Violent storms within the Sea: dense water formation episodes in the NW Mediterranean. Advances in Geoscience, 26, 53-59, doi:10.5194/adgeo-26-53-2010.

El calor y el intercambio de agua en el océano se producen casi exclusivamente en la superficie. El movimiento horizontal es predominante en el interior del mar. Entre los pocos procesos que pueden introducir un componente vertical del movimiento del agua son los que aumentan la superficie de la densidad del agua por congelación, enfriamiento o evaporación. Los procesos que activan los movimientos convectivos se ven reforzados por el aire sobre una superficie fría, el viento seco y la baja radiación solar. Por lo tanto, las células convectivas son más probables cuando la temperatura del aire en la superficie del mar es más baja que la temperatura superficial del mar. Sólo unos pocos lugares en los océanos del mundo son adecuados para que se produzca una convección profunda, y sólo bajo condiciones climáticas particulares, como ocurre en el Mediterráneo occidental en lo que se conoce como la formación de agua densa. En este artículo se describe el violento hundimiento de parcelas de agua que llegan hasta el fondo del mar en pocas horas.

Study of the precipitation evolution in Catalonia using a mesoscale model (1971–2000), (2010)

Study of the precipitation evolution in Catalonia using a mesoscale model (1971–2000), (2010)

BARRERA-ESCODA, A y CUNILLERA, J. (2010): Study of the precipitation evolution in Catalonia using a mesoscale model (1971–2000). Advances in Geoscience, 26, 7-11, doi:10.5194/adgeo-26-7-2010.

La región de Valencia, en la costa mediterránea de la Península Ibérica, es una zona propensa a las lluvias torrenciales, especialmente en el norte de la provincia de Alicante y el sur de la provincia de Valencia. En octubre de 2007, un evento de lluvias torrenciales con valores de precipitación acumulada superior a 400mm en menos de 24h afectó a las áreas antes mencionadas, produciendo inundaciones que causaron grandes pérdidas económicas y pérdidas de vidas humanas. Se han realizado distintas simulaciones de este evento de lluvia con el sistema de modelación atmosférica regional (RAMS).

Sensitivity of precipitation forecasts to convective parameterization in the October 2007 Flash Flood in the Valencia Region (Eastern Spain) (2010)

Sensitivity of precipitation forecasts to convective parameterization in the October 2007 Flash Flood in the Valencia Region (Eastern Spain) (2010)

GÓMEZ, I., PASTOR, F. y ESTRELA, M. (2010): Sensitivity of precipitation forecasts to convective parameterization in the October 2007 Flash Flood in the Valencia Region (Eastern Spain). Advances in Geosciences 26, 7-11, 2010, doi:10.5194/adgeo-26-7-2010.

La región de Valencia, en la costa mediterránea de la Península Ibérica, es una zona propensa a las lluvias torrenciales, especialmente en el norte de la provincia de Alicante y el sur de la provincia de Valencia. En octubre de 2007, un evento de lluvias torrenciales con valores de precipitación acumulada superior a 400 mm en menos de 24 h afectó a las áreas antes mencionadas, produciendo inundaciones que causaron grandes pérdidas económicas y pérdidas de vidas humanas. Las distintas simulaciones de este evento de lluvia se han realizado con el sistema de modelación atmosférica regional (RAMS).

Numerical study of the October 2007 flash flood in the Valencia region (Eastern Spain): the role of orography (2010)

Numerical study of the October 2007 flash flood in the Valencia region (Eastern Spain): the role of orography (2010)

PASTOR,F., GÓMEZ, I. y ESTRELA, M.J. (2010): Numerical study of the October 2007 flash flood in the Valencia region (Eastern Spain): the role of orography. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 1331–1345, 2010doi:10.5194/nhess-10-1331-2010.

Un evento de lluvias torrenciales se produjo en la región de Valencia en octubre de 2007, que afectó principalmente a las zonas costeras y las montañas cercanas, en el centro-sur de la región, en el norte de la provincia de Alicante. Más de 400 mm en 24h se registraron en algunas estaciones de estas zonas, con una menor acumulación en el resto de la región donde la lluvia fue menos intensa. En la primera parte de este trabajo se realiza una descripción de la situación meteorológica. El cuadro sinóptico del evento se caracteriza por una advección de vientos del este marítimo en el Mediterráneo Occidental, con una duración de al menos 48h, que condujo aire húmedo hacia la costa este de la Península Ibérica y la presencia de una baja aislada sobre el Este de la Península Ibérica. Los resultados de las simulaciones numéricas con el Modelo Regional de la Atmósfera permiten estudiar este caso en detalle. El modelo reproduce de manera satisfactoria la distribución espacial de las precipitaciones y el período de lluvia, pero subestima la precipitación en las zonas con los valores más intensos. Por último, se realizó una prueba de sensibilidad con el fin de evaluar el papel de la orografía en este evento.

Precipitation trends in Spanish hydrological divisions, 1946–2005 (2010)

Precipitation trends in Spanish hydrological divisions, 1946–2005 (2010)

GONZÁLEZ-HIDALGO, J.C.; BRUNETTI, M. and MARTÍN DE LUIS (2010): Precipitation trends in Spanish hydrological divisions, 1946–2005. Climate Research, Vol. 43: 215–228, 2010 doi: 10.3354/cr00937

En el artículo se presenta un estudio de los cambios producidos en el régimen de precipitaciones en las principales cuencas hidrográficas españolas. El análisis de las tendencias, entre 1946 y 2005, mostró la existencia de variaciones mensuales a largo plazo e importantes diferencias espaciales que se deben tomar en cuenta a la hora de llevar a cabo una planificación hidrológica.

Snow trends in Northern Spain: analysis and simulation with statistical downscaling methods (2010)

Snow trends in Northern Spain: analysis and simulation with statistical downscaling methods (2010)

PONS, M.R., SAN-MARTÍN, D., HERRERA, S. y GUTIÉRREZ J.M. Snow trends in Northern Spain: analysis and simulation with statistical downscaling methods. International Journal of Climatology 30: 1795–1806 (2010).

En este estudio se analizan y simulan, con técnicas de regionalización estadística, las tendencias observadas en la nieve en el norte de la Península Ibérica utilizando la ocurrencia de días de nieve (DSO) con datos de una red de 33 estaciones que van desde 60 hasta 1350 m. En primer lugar, se analiza la frecuencia anual de nieve medida con el número anual de días de nieve (NSD), obteniendo una tendencia significativa decreciente desde mediados de los años setenta con una reducción de NSD de alrededor del 50%. Esta magnitud es similar para las estaciones a mayor altitud o más bajas y para el invierno y la primavera por separado. A continuación, se analizan las correlaciones existentes con la temperatura media y la ocurrencia de precipitación para obtener diferentes relaciones en función de la estación y la elevación. Por último, se simula a gran escala la tendencia observada con un Modelo de Circulación General.

2009

A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain. (2009)

A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain. (2009)

LLASTA, M.C. et AL. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9, 2049-2061 (2009).

The aim of this work is to introduce a system- atic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain) and to analyze its potential applica- tion to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those is- sues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalo- nia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compila- tion of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social im- pact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

An analysis of the evolution of hydrometeorological extremes in newspapers: the case of Catalonia (2009)

An analysis of the evolution of hydrometeorological extremes in newspapers: the case of Catalonia (2009)

LLASAT, M.C. et AL. An analysis of the evolution of hydrometeorological extremes in newspapers: the case of Catalonia, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1982-2006, 9, 1201-1212 (2009).

This contribution analyzes the evolution of per- ception of certain natural hazards over the past 25 years in a Mediterranean region. Articles from newspapers have been used as indicator. To this end a specific Spanish journal has been considered and an ACCESS database has been created with the summarized information from each news item. The database includes data such as the location of each specific article in the newspaper, its length, the number of pictures and figures, the headlines and a summary of the published information, including all the instrumental data. The study focused on hydrometeorological extremes, mainly floods and droughts, in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The num- ber of headlines per event, trends and other data have been analyzed and compared with "measured" information, in or- der to identify any bias that could lead to an erroneous per- ception of the phenomenon. The SPI index (a drought index based on standardized accumulated precipitation) has been calculated for the entire region, and has been used for the drought analysis, while a geodatabase implemented on a GIS built for all the floods recorded in Catalonia since 1900 (IN- UNGAMA) has been used to analyze flood evolution. Re- sults from a questionnaire about the impact of natural haz- ards in two specific places have been also used to discuss the various perceptions between rural and urban settings. Results show a better correlation between the news about drought or water scarcity and SPI than between news on floods in Cat- alonia and the INUNGAMA database. A positive trend has been found for non-catastrophic floods, which is explained by decrease of the perception thresholds, the increase of pop- ulation density in the most flood-prone areas and changes in land use.

Observed changes in extreme temperatures over Spain during 1957-2002, using Weather Types (2009)

Observed changes in extreme temperatures over Spain during 1957-2002, using Weather Types (2009)

BERMEJO, M. y ANCELL, R. (2009): Observed changes in extreme temperatures over Spain during 1957-2002, using Weather Types. Revista de Climatología Vol. 9 (2009): 45-61

El objetivo principal de este artículo es identificar y analizar la variabilidad a escala diaria de los cambios observados en las temperaturas extremas en relación a la circulación atmosférica, realizando un análisis probabilístico conjunto de tipos de tiempo y sus correspondientes observaciones meterológicas en superficie. Para ello, en este estudio hemos comparado observaciones diarias de temperaturas extremas en superficie, en dos periodos (1957-1979 y 1980-2002) en la España continental y las islas Baleares. Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas entre los dos periodos de estudio; además, estos cambios en las temperaturas extremas fueron heterogéneos en espacio, tiempo y tipo de tiempo. Por último, se ha comprobado que las alteraciones observadas están más relacionadas con cambios en las temperaturas extremas de los tipos de tiempo correspondientes que con cambios en la probabilidad de ocurrencia de los mismos.

Efectos del cambio climático en la vegetación mediterránea (2009)

Efectos del cambio climático en la vegetación mediterránea (2009)

A. Vilagrosa; M.J. Estrela (2009). Efectos del cambio climático en la vegetación mediterránea. Comentarios sobre un simposio de WCRP y Diversitas en Valencia. Revista Ecosistemas 18 (1):90-91.

El simposio reunió a un amplio espectro de especialistas dedicados a la investigación sobre las consecuencias del calentamiento global. Se presentaron un total de 9 comunicaciones impartidas por expertos nacionales e internacionales. Las comunicaciones fueron muy variadas abarcando desde temáticas relacionadas con el cambio de temperatura experimentado por el planeta en los últimos 100 años hasta aspectos tan concretos como fisiología de plantas en un contexto de cambio climático.>

2008

Torrential Rainfall in Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic patterns and WeMO influence (2008)

Torrential Rainfall in Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic patterns and WeMO influence (2008)

MARTIN-VIDE, J.; SANCHEZ-LORENZO, A.; LOPEZ-BUSTINS, J.A.; CORDOBILLA, M.J.; GARCIA-MANUEL, A. and RASO, J.M. (2008): Torrential Rainfall in Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic patterns and WeMO influence. Advances in Science and Research, 2, 99-105.

Este estudio presenta un catálogo de patrones sinópticos de las lluvias torrenciales en el noreste de la Península Ibérica (PI). El análisis se realizó con 304 días que registraron >100 mm en una o más estaciones en las provincias de Barcelona, Girona y Tarragona (zona de franja costera de Cataluña) durante el período 1950-2005. Los resultados muestran una clara asociación entre los valores negativos del índice de Oscilación del Mediterráneo Occidental (WeMOi) y las lluvias torrenciales del noreste de la Península Ibérica.

2007

A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century (2007)

A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century (2007)

BARNOLAS, M y LLASAT, M.C. A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 7, 271-281 (2007).

Floods are the natural hazards that produce the highest number of casualties and material damage in the Western Mediterranean. An improvement in flood risk as- sessment and study of a possible increase in flooding oc- currence are therefore needed. To carry out these tasks it is important to have at our disposal extensive knowledge on historical floods and to find an efficient way to manage this geographical data. In this paper we present a complete flood database spanning the 20th century for the whole of Catalonia (NE Spain), which includes documentary informa- tion (affected areas and damage) and instrumental informa- tion (meteorological and hydrological records). This geo- database, named Inungama, has been implemented on a GIS (Geographical Information System) in order to display all the information within a given geographical scenario, as well as to carry out an analysis thereof using queries, overlays and calculus. Following a description of the type and amount of information stored in the database and the structure of the information system, the first applications of Inungama are presented. The geographical distribution of floods shows the localities which are more likely to be flooded, confirming that the most affected municipalities are the most densely popu- lated ones in coastal areas. Regarding the existence of an in- crease in flooding occurrence, a temporal analysis has been carried out, showing a steady increase over the last 30 years.

Escenarios climáticos para temporadas con alto y bajo número de huracanes en el Atlántico (2007)

Escenarios climáticos para temporadas con alto y bajo número de huracanes en el Atlántico (2007)

ALFARO, Eric J. (2007): Escenarios climáticos para temporadas con alto y bajo número de huracanes en el Atlántico. Revista de Climatología, Junio, 1-13.

Se estudió la relación entre la variación de la actividad anual de los ciclones tropicales en el Atlántico y las variaciones decadales e interanuales de la Temperatura Superficial del Mar (TSM). Utilizando el análisis de tabla de contingencia se asignaron las probabilidades condicionales para los escenarios bajo, dentro y arriba de lo normal en la actividad anual de los ciclones tropicales dado un escenario bajo, dentro y arriba de lo normal en distintos índices de TSM para el periodo 1944-2004 (61 años). La actividad anual de los ciclones se estudió en función de la comparación normalizada de la TSM en el Atlántico y el Pacífico tropical. Se observó que años con pocos huracanes estaban acompañados de condiciones más frías (cálidas) que el promedio en el Atlántico Tropical Norte (Pacífico Ecuatorial del Este), una mayor cortante vertical del viento en el Atlántico Tropical Norte pero menor en el Pacífico Ecuatorial del Este cerca de Centroamérica y una presión media a nivel del mar mayor (menor) en el Atlántico Tropical Norte (Pacífico Ecuatorial del Este). Años con una alta actividad de huracanes mostraron, en términos generales, patrones opuestos en el campo de las anomalías a los descritos anteriormente para las regiones estudiadas.

2006

Estimation of extreme flash flood evolution in Barcelona County from 1351to 2005 (2006)

Estimation of extreme flash flood evolution in Barcelona County from 1351to 2005 (2006)

BARRERA, A. et AL. Estimation of extreme flash flood evolution in Barcelona County from 1351to 2005. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 505-518, 2006

Every year, flash floods cause economic losses and major problems for undertaking daily activity in the Cat- alonia region (NE Spain). Sometimes catastrophic damage and casualties occur. When a long term analysis of floods is undertaken, a question arises regarding the changing role of the vulnerability and the hazard in risk evolution. This paper sets out to give some information to deal with this question, on the basis of analysis of all the floods that have occurred in Barcelona county (Catalonia) since the 14th century, as well as the flooded area, urban evolution, impacts and the weather conditions for any of most severe events. With this objec- tive, the identification and classification of historical floods, and characterisation of flash-floods among these, have been undertaken. Besides this, the main meteorological factors as- sociated with recent flash floods in this city and neighbouring regions are well-known. On the other hand, the identification of rainfall trends that could explain the historical evolution of flood hazard occurrence in this city has been analysed. Finally, identification of the influence of urban development on the vulnerability to floods has been carried out. Barcelona city has been selected thanks to its long continuous data se- ries (daily rainfall data series, since 1854; one of the longest rainfall rate series of Europe, since 1921) and for the accu- rate historical archive information that is available (since the Roman Empire for the urban evolution). The evolution of flood occurrence shows the existence of oscillations in the earlier and later modern-age periods that can be attributed to climatic variability, evolution of the perception threshold and changes in vulnerability. A great increase of vulnerabil- ity can be assumed for the period 1850–1900. The analysis of the time evolution for the Barcelona rainfall series (1854– 2000) shows that no trend exists, although, due to changes in urban planning, flash-floods impact has altered over this time. The number of catastrophic flash floods has dimin- ished, although the extraordinary ones have increased.

2005

Floods in Catalonia (NE Spain) since the 14th century. Climatological and meteorological aspects from historical documentary sources and old instrumental records (2005)

Floods in Catalonia (NE Spain) since the 14th century. Climatological and meteorological aspects from historical documentary sources and old instrumental records (2005)

LLASAT et AL. Floods in Catalonia (NE Spain) since the 14th century. Climatological and meteorological aspects from historical documentary sources and old instrumental records. Journal of Hydrology 313 (2005) 32-47

This paper shows a first approximation towards an interdisciplinary treatment of flood events from an historical, climatic and meteorological point of view. Starting from historical document sources, early instrumental data (basically, rainfall and surface pressure) and the most recent meteorological information, the paper analyses the temporal evolution of floods in NE Spain since the 14th century. Results show than the highest number of floods have been recorded in the Ter river, with 121 flood events (1322–2000 AD), followed by the Llobregat river with 112 cases at its mouth (1315–2000 AD). Any trend has been observed for the catastrophic floods. On the contrary, extraordinary floods show a little positive trend, probably related with the human occupation of the flood prone areas. Besides this, the paper shows an initial approximation of current meteorological master- patterns to the flooding episodes recorded between 1840 and 1870, a period characterised by a higher frequency of flooding. The newness is the reconstruction of those daily charts by using early instrumental data from 11 meteorological or astronomic observatories, some of them collected by the authors in the framework of the SPHERE project. For that purpose, the conceptual models obtained on the basis of the in-depth analysis of recent flooding episodes are compared with the synoptic pattern at the surface of those flood episodes registered in historical times. Following the proposed interdisciplinary approach, the paper bases itself on the documentary collections forming the subject-matter of this study, as well as the older and latest instrumental records.

2003

Surface Atmospheric Circulation Over Europe Following Major Tropical Volcanic Eruptions, 1780-1995 (2003)

Surface Atmospheric Circulation Over Europe Following Major Tropical Volcanic Eruptions, 1780-1995 (2003)

PHOHOM, M.J.; ESTEBAN, P.; MARTÍN VIDE, J.; y JONES, P.D. (2003): Surface Atmospheric Circulation Over Europe Following Major Tropical Volcanic Eruptions, 1780-1995. Volcanism and the Earth´s Atmosphere, Geophysical Monograph 139, American Geophysical Union, pp. 273-281.

Se identifican los patrones de circulación mensual de la variabilidad en el continente europeo durante el primer año después de ocho grandes erupciones volcánicas tropicales desde principios del siglo XIX. Los resultados que muestran la modificación de la circulación atmosférica tras grandes erupciones volcánicas son consistentes con estudios previos basados en los registros instrumentales de los períodos más recientes. Esto pone de relieve la solidez de los cambios en la circulación como respuesta al forzamiento volcánico. El análisis también demuestra que las funciones empíricas ortogonales proporcionar una herramienta útil para detectar estas características dinámicas.

Aproximación al Comportamiento Intraanual de las Temperaturas Diarias en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica (2003)

Aproximación al Comportamiento Intraanual de las Temperaturas Diarias en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica (2003)

BARRÓN GARCÍA, Leoncio, PITA LÓPEZ, Mª Fernanda Pita: Aproximación al Comportamiento Intraanual de las Temperaturas Diarias en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica. Revista de Climatología. Vol. 3. 2003. Pag. 17-26

Con base en los datos de las series temporales de temperaturas diarias máximas y mínimas, de los observatorios de la región suroccidental española se realiza el análisis del comportamiento intraanual de las mismas. Se obtienen las funciones de ajuste que representan l evolución estacional y anual, y se analizan las disimilitudes observadas entre las temperaturas máximas y mínimas. Se muestra que los distintos observatorios de la región responden a características evolutivas similares, lo que permite, desde esta perspectiva, englobarlos en el mismo ámbito climático.

The "Montserrat-2000" Flash-flood event: a comparison with the floods that haver ocurred in the Northeastern Iberian Peninsula since the 14Th century (2003)

The "Montserrat-2000" Flash-flood event: a comparison with the floods that haver ocurred in the Northeastern Iberian Peninsula since the 14Th century (2003)

LLASAT, M.C et AL. The "Montserrat-2000" Flash-flood event: a comparison with the floods that haver ocurred in the Northeastern Iberian Peninsula since the 14Th century. International Journal of Climatology, 23: 453-469 (2003)

This paper presents an analysis of the flash floods that occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) on 10 June 2000, in the context of the historical floods recorded since the 14th century. The study starts with pluviometric and meteorological analyses (essentially synoptic and thermodynamic) of the episode. There follows a comparison of this event with previous floods for which we have instrumental information, information from archives, or both types of information. In some cases this permitted us to make a meteorological comparison of episodes similar to that of June 2000, and the complete series was used to carry out a frequency analysis of floods that have occurred in the basin under study. The conclusions show that although catastrophic flooding in spring is not as typical a phenomenon as autumn flooding, such floods have been recorded at least once each century, and it can be stated that the synoptic meteorological situation, where recorded, showed similar characteristics in all cases. Copyright  2003 Royal Meteorological Society.

The case of "Maldá" anomaly in the Western Mediterranean Basin (AD 1760-1800): An example of a strong climatic variability (2003)

The case of "Maldá" anomaly in the Western Mediterranean Basin (AD 1760-1800): An example of a strong climatic variability (2003)

BARRIENDOS, M. y LLASAT, M.C. The case of "Maldá" Anomaly in the Western Mediterranean Basin (AD 1760-1800): An example of a strong climatic variability. Climatic Change, 61, 191-216

The study of climatic anomalies on the basis of various types of instrumental information and proxy-data allows unusual events to be identified. The objective of this paper is to introduce and explain a hydrometeorological anomaly that occurred between 1760 and 1800 (Maldá Anomaly), characterised by a sequence of both anomalous droughts and floods, and to compare it with the features of the second part of the 20th century. Firstly, some climatic indices obtained from proxy-data (mainly documentary sources) have been generated. Secondly, instrumental observations made in earlier times, in conjunction with data from the bibliography, have been used in order to relate this period to the different circulation patterns and to analyse the geographical extension of the anomaly. The results confirm the presence of considerable variations in the atmospheric action centres, especially between 1780 and 1795, which in the Western Mediterranean gave rise to a simultaneous increase in the frequency of droughts and heavy rainfalls, either having nothing comparable or sharing similarities with periods in the 19th and 20th centuries.

2002

El uso de los diarios de navegación como instrumento de reconstrucción climática. La marina catalana del siglo XIX (2002)

El uso de los diarios de navegación como instrumento de reconstrucción climática. La marina catalana del siglo XIX (2002)

PROHOM, M. (2002): El uso de los diarios de navegación como instrumento de reconstrucción climática. La marina catalana del siglo XIX. Investigaciones Geográficas, nº 28, 89-104.

La necesidad de obtener mayor información sobre los climas del pasado, potencia el uso de nuevas técnicas y fuentes paleoclimáticas, para así evaluar el cambio climático actual. Este artículo se centra en una de estas técnicas, la Climatología histórica y, más concretamente, en el uso de los diarios de navegación como instrumento proxy para la reconstrucción climática. El estudio detallado de la travesía de un solo navío confiere a esta fuente documental plena utilidad como instrumento de análisis sinóptico del pasado.

2001

An objective classification of rainfall events on the basis of their convective features. Application to rainfall intensity in the North-East of Spain (2001)

An objective classification of rainfall events on the basis of their convective features. Application to rainfall intensity in the North-East of Spain (2001)

LLASAT, M.C. An objective classification of rainfall events on the basis of their convective features. Application to rainfall intensity in the North-East of Spain. International Journal of Climatology, 21, 1385-1400 (2001).

In the present paper a system of rainfall events classification on the basis of their hydrometeorological characteristics has been proposed. The final objective is characterisation of the different event classes and their application in modelling of IDF curves and design hyetographs. Recourse was had for this purpose to definition of a parameter related with the greater or lesser convective character of the precipitation and designated as β*, while its distribution throughout the entire series of the sample was studied. Besides this, the main features of the different classes obtained and their relationship with floods and rainfall damage events have been analysed. The intensity series of the Jardí pluviograph (Barcelona, Spain) between 1927 and 1981 was used as a sample series.

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